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Asphalt is a high-viscosity petroleum derivate, with waterproofing and adhesive properties, non-volatile, black or brown in color. It basically consists of asphaltenes, resins, and hydrocarbons of an aromatic nature, soluble in trichlorethylene and obtained by refining petroleum, and it can also be found in nature as a natural deposit (gilsonite) or associated with mineral matter (Trinidadian asphalt).
The term asphalt is also popularly used to name the set of materials applied in paving, that is, the mixture consisting of an asphalt binder for paving (petroleum asphalt cement, diluted asphalt, modified asphalt, or asphalt emulsions), with mineral material compound aggregates.
Fuels used on drillships can be classified into two categories: residual or marine fuel oils, or even bunker (MF – marine fuel), produced from formulations containing mainly heavy fractions from distillation and other diluent oils; and those produced from the lighter fractions of refining (mostly atmospheric gas oils), called marine diesel, DMA or marine gasoil (MGO).
Marine fuel oils (MFs) are used in main engines in drillship propulsion systems. Marine diesel is primarily used in auxiliary power generation or emergency systems on vessels, and it can be used in main propulsion engines on medium and small vessels.
Green Petroleum Coke
Green Petroleum Coke (CVP), also petcoke or green coke, is a solid fuel obtained in Delayed Coking Units (UCR). CVP is porous, black in color and usually in the form of granules, often similar to mineral coal.
It is basically made up of carbon and processing residual hydrocarbons. Sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and metals in different amounts may also be present.
Low ash and sulfur contents, in addition to high calorific value and fixed carbon content, make CVP Petrobras a differentiated product, with greater market value, and favoring it in various energy and metallurgical applications. Its lower environmental impact makes it a potential substitute for other products, such as (mineral and vegetable) coal.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Liquefied petroleum gas, LPG, is defined as the blend formed, almost entirely, by carbon and hydrogen molecules (hydrocarbons) of three to four carbon atoms which, although gaseous under Normal Temperature and Pressure Conditions (CNTP), can be liquefied by cooling and/or compression.
The most important constituents of LPG are: propane (C3H8); propylene (C3H6); isobutane (C4H10); n-butane (C4H10); and butene (C4H8).
LPG can be transported and stored as a liquid and, when released, it is vaporized and burned as a gas. It can easily be taken from the liquid state to the gaseous state and vice versa. This characteristic makes it a unique fuel.
Aviation gasoline – GAV or AVGAS – is a mixture of hydrocarbons, with 5 to 9 carbon atoms, based on branched paraffins. It contains, even to a lesser extent, aromatic hydrocarbons.
It uses tetraethyl lead as an octane booster.
It is predominantly used in small planes, which have piston engines, of the Otto cycle type with spark ignition. These are aircraft used in agricultural aviation, small commercial aviation, private aviation, pilot training, and in experimental and sports aircraft.
Paraffins are petroleum derivates consisting predominantly of paraffinic hydrocarbons with a straight or slightly branched chain, containing 18 or more carbon atoms, and are solid at ambient temperature.
They are produced as a by-product of the manufacture of paraffinic base oils, in the dewaxing stage.
Lubricating Base Stock
Base stock used in the formulation of finished lubricants can be mineral-based or synthetic-based.
Petrobras produces mineral base stock, which is a petroleum derivate consisting of a complex blend of paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons, with a lower content of aromatic hydrocarbons, containing 15 or more carbon atoms, produced from gas oils from vacuum distillation or deasphalted oils.
Fuel oil is a product used to generate thermal energy, basically composed of a complex mixture of streams from petroleum processing, based on vacuum distillation residue (RV). Diluents in the diesel oil boiling range or heavier are added to the RV, according to the required specification.
Fuel oil is used to generate thermal energy in furnaces and boilers. It is convenient that the oil is kept warm in the tank to favor its flow. Depending on the intended use, it must pass through a filtration system to remove organic and inorganic sediments. Next, it is heated again to reduce its viscosity to the value required by the burner, favoring nebulization.
Aviation kerosene is a petroleum product obtained by direct distillation. It consists of hydrocarbons with a number of carbon atoms ranging from 9 to 15, with the structure of organic compounds classified as paraffinic and aromatic.
In order for this oil derivative to present adequate characteristics for the generation of energy for gas turbine engines, several physicochemical criteria are required during its production, which include fluidity (flow), stability (storage), and adequate combustion for these engines.
Petrochemical naphtha is characterized as a specialty product, that is, petroleum derivate the demand for which is reduced in relation to fuels, however, with high added value.
It is a light fraction intended for the production of basic petrochemical compounds (mainly olefins with up to 3 carbon atoms and aromatic compounds), obtained from the distillation of petroleum or the heavy fraction of natural gas and may present a greater or lesser predominance of paraffinic hydrocarbons in its composition.
Solvents are products derived from petroleum refining or natural gas processing that have the ability to solubilize and extract other substances without chemically reacting with them.
Solvents have several applications, from industrial use to food production, such as vegetable oils, and the application of pest treatment materials. In their applications, they have the functions of solubilizing, cleaning, degreasing, dissolving, dispersing, extracting, and purifying, among others.
Among the main solvents produced and sold by Petrobras, the following stand out: Commercial hexane, mineral turpentine, toluene, and xylenes.
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